The Grand Ducal Institute was founded in 1868 at the instigation of Prince Henri, brother of the Grand Duke and the King of the Netherlands William III. This institution brought together the three learned societies already existing in Luxembourg, namely: The Archaeological Society of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (founded in 1845), the Natural Sciences Society of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (founded in 1850) and the Society of Medical Sciences of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (founded in 1862). The societies in question then became 'sections'. Over the subsequent years, three other sections were added to the three sections present in 1868: the Linguistics, Ethnology and Onomastics section, founded in 1935; the Arts and Letters Section, founded in 1962, and the Moral and Political Science Section founded in 1966.
The Grand Ducal Institute currently consists of a:
- History section,
- Natural, Physical and Mathematical sciences Section,
- Medical Sciences Section,
- Linguistics, Ethnology and Onomastics Section,
- Arts and Letters Section,
- Moral and Political Sciences Section.